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DIDACTIC TABLE OF
‘THE SNAKE’S ROCK’

PLOT
This is a fantastic story which begins when a shepherd sees a group of snakes going inside a rock by using magic. The shepherd follows the snakes into a cave where he is trapped. When he wakes up after a long sleep, the shepherd is allowed to escape after swearing that he will not reveal anything of what he has seen. When he arrives home, his wife is with a fierce wizard who forces the shepherd to tell him about the secret place where he has been. The chief snake tries to protect the secret cave by turning into a dragon and taking the shepherd away. In the end, the shepherd realizes that it had all been a dream.

DIDACTIC POTENTIAL (AT LANGUAGE LEVEL)
This story is highly descriptive. Apart from working on reading and listening comprehension, this tale can be used to revise word order, prepositions, expressions related to feelings, verbal tenses, etc. All the vocabulary included can be used to improve oral production if the students are encouraged to share their answers to the different activities available next to the story.

DIDACTIC POTENTIAL (OTHER COMPETENCES)
This story has aspects of different literary genres and subgenres. Firstly, it is fantastic, with magic situations and imaginary monsters. Secondly, it belongs to the pastoral genre (it is located in the countryside, there are animals, and the protagonist is a shepherd), so it can be studied from that perspective. Thirdly, it uses a well known narrative strategy consisting of telling a story which turns out to be the main character’s dream. This could help to awake the students’ imagination and to explore shaping alternative worlds that escape real life logic to some extent.

LIMITATIONS & POTENTIAL DIFFICULTIES
Some students could feel overwhelmed with an unusual amount of new words and expressions found in the text. The pages with more unknown words will need more time to work on than the rest. However, the definition of a considerable amount of words is accessible by means of hyperlinks.

PROPOSALS FOR WORKING WITH THE STORY IN CLASSROOM & AT HOME
Although the majority of the activities proposed have been designed to be undertaken in the classroom or in a group, they can be easily adapted to be done at home and in isolation.

PROPOSALS FOR WORKING WITH THE STORY IN CLASSROOM & AT HOME
The potential of this story lies in the integration of a considerable number of narrative, communicative and cultural elements, among others. It could prove useful to work progressively, either individually or collaboratively, on the elaboration of a schematic map that reflects the complex structure of the story.

SUGGESTIONS FOR BRAINSTORMING OR PRE-TASKS
There are several topics that could be reflected upon / discussed before reading this story: -Dreams. Do you ever remember your dreams? Can you remember any dream you’ve had recently? - Animals and their symbolism. Which ethical associations would you make involving animals (e.g., dogs and loyalty)? Are they all justified? - Magic. What are the most common uses of magic that you find in books? Do they have anything in common?

SUGGESTIONS FOR WORKING ON RELATED FIELDS & STORIES
This story is a magnificent resource to work on literary genres, text-types and techniques. There is a fluid integration of narration, description and dialogue. Furthermore, there are many fantastic elements (with a connection to ‘Ali Baba and the forty Thieves’) and the story is dreamt by the main character (a well known literary device found in books like ‘Alice in Wonderland’). The narrative potential of fantasy and dreams can be explored and contrasted with realistic texts. It is worth mentioning that, unlike the pastoral genre which contains elements of idealism, such as platonic love, neither the characters nor their relationships are idealized. Quite the contrary! This is an opportunity to explore (lack of) politeness in conversation and humour and irony as literary resources.

TABLA DIDÁCTICA DEL CUENTO
“¡A VOLAR TODOS!”

RESUMEN
Los hermanos piden alas al Genio de la arena, y este les concede su deseo. Hambrientos, deciden tomar algunos víveres de la despensa del cura, con tan mala suerte que se quedan dormidos sin querer hasta el atardecer, encaramados a la torre de una iglesia. Las alas desaparecen y acaban ingeniándoselas para poder bajar sin ellas.

POTENCIAL DIDÁCTICO
De igual modo que ocurre en otros cuentos de la Colección (como en “¡Cuidado con el niño!”), esta narración se perfila en base al trazo de una tensión entre el plano de los deseos y el de la realidad. Por ello, priman los contenidos en valores y la potenciación de la inteligencia emocional. En este caso, se tratan las nociones de culpa, de arrepentimiento y de castigo. Desde un punto de vista literario, es interesante reseñar que este cuento se relaciona con otros de la Colección que, a su vez, tienen a los cinco hermanos como protagonistas: “Los chicos guapos”, “Las monedas de oro”, “¡Cuidado con el niño!”, “En estado de sitio”, “El fenómeno”, “¿El menor o el mayor?”, “En el sendero de la guerra” y “Las alhajas de la duquesa”.

PROPUESTA DE ACTIVIDADES
Actividades de lectura crítica orientadas a tratar las responsabilidades y las consecuencias de los actos que realizan las personas. Actividades de geografía y de matemáticas. Actividades colaborativas: una receta, búsqueda de información sobre transportes antiguos. Actividades de escritura creativa y de dibujo.

VOCABULARIO
Definición de las siguientes expresiones, palabras o grafías: tornasoladas, blandiendo, estupefacto, dije, tino, arrebatado, prodigio, ventorro, vasar, víveres, sifón, unísono, sacristán.

Text, intertextuality and context: Activity to scaffold reading comprehension and notes on intertextual and historical or cultural contextual information.
Oral interpersonal communication: Activity to improve oral production and interaction.
Collaboration: Activity to be undertaken totally or partially in a group.
Critical capacity: Activity to promote explicit learning through analysis and critical reasoning.
Oral comprehension: Activity for the acquisition of oral receptive skills.
Gamification and digital skills: Activity to promote gamified and technology-based learning through exercises and small interactive games with the computer.
Oral interpersonal communication: Activity to improve oral production and interaction.
Didactic guidelines for the English teacher: Table with a summary of the story and recommendations for the use of the tool in the classroom.
Audio: Listening of the enriched audio embedded in each page.
Comprensión lectora y contexto Explicación de información contextual, histórica o cultural, difícil para el lector actual.

Creatividad Propuestas para trabajar la imaginación, la fantasía y la sensibilidad a partir de la lectura.

Trabajo colaborativo y emocional Propuestas de actividades para desarrollar el trabajo en grupo y el conocimiento de las emociones.

Capacidad crítica e intertextualidad Anotaciones que promueven el pensamiento crítico y la profundización en el conocimiento de las estrategias literarias.

Actividades auditivas Anotaciones orientadas a desarrollar la recepción auditiva, utilizando la dimensión oral del lenguaje, los sonidos y la música.

Elementos interactivos (Puzles, galerías de imágenes, ejercicios, etc.) Anotaciones que han requerido algún tipo de programación especial orientadas a fomentar la lectura activa.

Audio Pista de audio del cuento por página.

What’s the name given to the process of sleeping through the winter in the animal kingdom? Why do some animals do that? How do they manage to survive? Do they wake up to eat and drink?

Talk to others about this and look for the answers to these questions if necessary.

Do you think that humans and snakes hibernate?

ANSWER:

Una ciudad de libros

Comprensión lectora y contexto Explicación de información contextual, histórica o cultural, difícil para el lector actual.
Creatividad Propuestas para trabajar la creatividad a partir de la lectura.
Trabajo colaborativo y emocional Propuestas de actividades para desarrollar el trabajo en grupo y el conocimiento de las emociones.
Capacidad crítica e intertextualidad Anotaciones que promueven el pensamiento crítico y la profundización en el conocimiento de las estrategias literarias
Comprensión sonora Ejercicios que trabajan la comprensión auditiva (para la versión en inglés).
Elementos interactivos (Puzles, galerías de imágenes, ejercicios, etc.) Anotaciones que han requerido algún tipo de programación especial
Icono audio Se utiliza este icono para escuchar el audio incrustado por página en la versión en inglés y en la bilingüe.

A volar todos

Este relato es una adaptación de los cuentos de Edith Nesbit “Wings” y “No Wings”, de la colección Five Children and It (1905).


The English version of this book is a translation from Plaga de Dragones, a story collection which was published by Saturnino Calleja in 1923. This translation was undertaken collaboratively as part of a crowd translation project which took place at the Spanish distance learning university UNED in 2016, involving translation teachers and students. During the translation process, we tried to reach a balance between being faithful to the Spanish text and bringing it into the 21st century for the enjoyment and learning of modern readers. We feel that the stories are still relevant to you these days and trust that you will find the cultural contrast interesting.

The text has been enriched with a number of annotations including audio, term explanations, and various proposals for activities, which are mainly aimed at young non-native English speakers.

Tornasoladas

Unas alas tornasoladas son unas alas que brillan en diferentes colores.

Measles

A contagious illness that causes red spots on the skin and high temperature. Children have it more frequently than adults unless they are vaccinated.

Example: Tommy didn’t go to school when he had measles.

Bean

The seed of certain plants which are eaten as a vegetable in stews, soups, salads, or as a side dish.

Example: The smell of the bean stew was delicious.

Nanny

A person who provides care for somebody else’s children as a paid service.

Example: The nanny told the children a story at bedtime.

Three Wise Men

According to the Christian tradition, the Three Wise Men, Kings or Magi were distinguished foreigners who visited Jesus after his birth, guided by a star, bearing gifts. They are common figures in Christmas nativity sets, next to the Holy Family and the shepherds.

Example: The names of the Three Wise Men were Melchior, Gaspar and Balthassar.

Bureau

A chest or piece of furniture for writing with drawers (boxes that slide in and out and are used to hold things). It can have a top that locks with a key and opens upwards.

Example: The old wooden bureau contained old secret documents.

Flock

A group of sheep, goats, or birds.

Example: Shepherds take care of their flock.

Benny_Trapp_Anatololacerta_oertzeni_Rhodos.jpg


Why do you think that Rosie and Fabian’s mother doesn’t let them open the two drawers? Try and guess the reason!


We are sure that you know what a bureau is and what it is for. Can you name up to five things that you would typically find in the drawers of a bureau and five things that you would never ever find there?


As you can read, the children now have wings on their shoulders.

What animal would you say has a similar type of wings to those of the children?

ANSWER:


We are sure that you know what a bureau is and what it is for. Can you name up to five things that you would typically find in the drawers of a bureau and five things that you would never ever find there?


We are sure that you know what a bureau is and what it is for. Can you name up to five things that you would typically find in the drawers of a bureau and five things that you would never ever find there?


This advice is somewhat similar to the one given by Daedelus, a craftsman and artist in Greek mythology, to his son Icarus when they were imprisoned inside the labyrinth of King Minos of Crete. Desperate to leave, Daedalus had the idea of ​​making wings with bird feathers and bee wax so they could escape flying from the labyrinth.

In the end, Icarus flew too high and got too close to the sun, so the wax of his wings melted, making him fall from a big altitude.

Is the Genie worried that the children's wings will melt too?

Shepherds use herding dogs to help them with their work. Dogs help shepherds to control the flock, find lost animals and keep predators away.

Do you know what dog breeds are commonly used for herding?

ANSWER:

LISTEN

Listen to this recording of another story and answer the questions below:

Which story does this fragment belong to? Do you know what's happening in the story you just listened to?

ANSWER:

As you can read, the priest's maid can hear the screams but cannot see anybody. Do you know why?

ANSWER:

Homophone words are those that have the same pronunciation but different spelling and meaning. For example: "new" and knew" and "no" and "know".

The word "maid", meaning ‘a female servant’, is a homophone to another very common English word. Do you know which one?

ANSWER:

Robert and Cyril are telling the truth to the priest but not the complete truth. Do you think we could say that Robert and Cyril are lying?

Try to imagine similar situations that happened to you in the past and think about Robert and Cyril's behaviour and whether they are doing the right thing or not.

ANSWER:

The ability to fly does not correspond to humans. In some tales people are able to fly thanks to spells like that of the Sandy's. Do you know of any other tale in which humans can fly?

ANSWER:


Listen again to the word "whistle" that appears in the text:

Did you notice that there is a silent letter that is not pronounced? Which one is it?

ANSWER:

The children of the story decided to take some fruits without permission. Do you think it is right to do that?

Working in small groups, imagine you are in a similar situation and discuss with your partners about what both of you should do.

Once the discussion is over, communicate your decision to the rest.

Con todas las palabras del diccionario

Intenta expresar con otras palabras lo que quiere decir esta frase.


Aquí te damos una idea.

La ciudad

¿Te imaginas qué ciudad pueden estar sobrevolando, que tenga paseos, iglesias, fábricas y río lleno de embarcaciones? En la versión inglesa se refieren a la ciudad de Rochester, a unos 50 km. al este de Londres y cerca de la playa. En España podrían ser Bilbao o Sevilla, por ejemplo.

Ilustración del cuento original de Nesbit por H. R. Millar.

Pilluelo

¿Sabías que un pilluelo es un niño travieso? Los pilluelos además han sido protagonistas de muchas historias, seguro que a ti se te ocurren algunas. ¿Qué películas, series o cuentos conoces con un protagonista que sea un poco “pilluelo”?

¿Conoces a Celia? ¡Pues aquí tienes otro ejemplo! Celia era una niña muy famosa y un poco traviesa. Pregúntales a tus padres o familiares mayores si conocen sus historias.

Blandiendo

Cuando alguien blande un palo, lo levanta y lo mueve de un lado para otro como una bandera.

Estupefacto

Cuando alguien se queda sin palabras y no sabe qué decir, se queda estupefacto.

Dije

Un dije es una joya que se suele llevar como colgante en un collar o pulsera.

Tino

Antera le echa al hombre dinero en el bolsillo y acierta. Tino significa acertar al tirar un objeto.

Arrebatado

Una persona arrebatada es alguien que se enfada mucho y con mucha facilidad.

Prodigio

Un prodigio es un milagro, algo extraño que no se deja explicar con la razón.

Ventorro

Un ventorro es una posada u hostal para gente de paso y suele ser de poca categoría. Ofrece comida y alojamiento. Aquí puedes ver uno de aquellos albergues, la Posada de las Ánimas en Ronda, donde, entre otros muchos viajeros, se alojó uno de los escritores más famosos, D. Miguel de Cervantes.

Orzas de miel

Una orza es un recipiente muchas veces hecho de barro, en el que se guardaba y conservaba la miel, la mermelada o también los pimientos, los quesos y mucho más. Suele tener el cuello ancho para poder sacar los alimentos con una cuchara y las hay de tamaños muy diferentes.

Ahora casi todo se conserva a través del frío de las neveras o los congeladores pero seguro que te han contado también otras formas de conservar los alimentos que se siguen usando, ¿te suenan las conservas y mermeladas?

¡Pide ayuda a un adulto y atrévete a hacer tu propia mermelada para el desayuno con esta sencilla receta!

Reales

En una parte del cuento dice que los niños reunieron 2,5 (pero no dice de qué moneda). Luego dice que tienen 10 reales. Averigua qué monedas tienen y a cuántos reales equivale cada una. En las fotos tienes la pista.

Moneda de un real acuñada en Sevilla en 1853, durante el reinado de Isabel II. Hecha en plata.

Aquí tienes la solución.

Centinela

Centinela es la persona que vigila el entorno para que los demás puedan seguir haciendo sin peligro lo que estén haciendo. En este caso es Juana la que hace de centinela y se queda vigilando para asegurarse de que no viene nadie que les pueda pillar, y, como sabe silbar, puede avisar a los demás en caso de peligro.

¿Te has quedado de centinela alguna vez? Escribe la historia y cuéntanos en qué ocasión fue y si os acabaron pillando.


Vasar

Estante o repisa de obra situado en las cocinas, o en este caso en la despensa, para colocar la vajilla, los cacharros y la comida.

Víveres

Víveres es otra palabra que se utiliza para decir alimentos o comida

Sifón

El sifón es una botella de un litro que muchas veces contenía una especie de gaseosa.

Unísono

Hablar – o aquí gritar – al unísono quiere decir que todos gritan lo mismo a la vez.

Sacristán

El sacristán es la persona que ayuda al cura, y se encarga de cuidar y limpiar la iglesia.

Los transportes

Se da por sabido que lo que le pide el cura al sacristán es que enganche el caballo al carro para llevar a los niños a casa. Actualmente, uno de los mayores problemas de las grandes ciudades es la cantidad de coches que hay en ellas. ¡Es difícil aparcar y hay grandes atascos! Casi todas las familias ahora tienen un coche para desplazarse pero antiguamente había muy pocos coches y antes aún, no había automóviles, sino coches tirados por caballos. Investiga en Internet y coméntalo con tus abuelos u otras personas mayores ¿Ellos tenían coche? ¿Cómo se desplazaban cuando eran jóvenes?

El sueño del vuelo

¿Has soñado alguna vez con volar? ¿Cómo fue la sensación en tu sueño?
Y si no lo has soñado nunca, ¿cómo te lo imaginas? ¡Dibuja tu sueño o el vuelo más alocado y mágico que te imagines!

El final del cuento

¿Te parece justo para Eufemia y Enrique el final del cuento? Piensa sobre por qué los adultos no agradecen a los niños su hazaña e imagina un final diferente para el cuento. Puedes poner por escrito ese final aquí.

Juguetes

¿Cómo eran los juguetes de tus padres y abuelos? Pregúntales si tuvieron algunos de estos.

Issues

Something that is made, sent out, or published.

Example: The man sold all his old issues of comics from when he was a child.

This is such a tough decision for the shepherd! Help him by writing down in one column reasons for obeying the wizard and, in another column, reasons for keeping the oath he swore to the snake.

Have a debate with your group, consider the others' opinions and try to make a final decision together. It might be necessary to vote at the end.

Council

Imagine you and your partners are members of the city Council during the plague of dragons in the story. Each one of you must choose a role from the following list and start a discussion:

  1. Mayor: S/he wants to eliminate he plague but without harming anybody and without destroying any buildings or property.
  2. Militar advisor: S/he wants to eliminate the plague no matter what to ensure that the main objective is reached.
  3. Scientific advisor: S/he doesn't want to eliminate the plague in order study the dragons and protect the people at the same time.

Rosie and Fabian use a six-sided puzzle to make a castle. Each side contains a beautiful picture. Go to the webpage of a famous museum and select six paintings that you like, each one corresponding to the following famous painters:

  1. Leonardo da Vinci (Italian, 15th century)
  2. Peter Paul Rubens (German, 17th century)
  3. Rembrandt van Rijn (Dutch, 17th century)
  4. Vincent Van Gogh (Dutch, 19th century)
  5. Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 20th century)
  6. Salvador Dali (Spanish, 20th century)

Bayonet

A weapon that consists of a knife attached to the front end of a rifle.

Example: Bayonets were used in close fighting long ago.

Sabre

A heavy sword with one sharp curved edge.

Example: My grandfather has a sabre on the wall from the Mexican war.

Working in small groups, try to imagine this situation and elaborate a role-play.

One of you will be the bell ringer, who wants to get into the tower to see who is screaming. Another one will be the priest, who is afraid and prefers to avoid opening the tower's door. Other participants would be the children, etc

Choose a role and write down a dialogue of your imagination which would develop from a similar situation.


Now that you have read the whole story, try to guess the order of the following images to fit the sequence of the story:

Fire poker

A pointed metal bar for stirring up a fire.

Example: Our father used the fire poker when the grill was about to extinguish.

Board

A plank; a flat, cut piece of wood.

Example: The child fixed small wheels to the board and then jumped on it.

Alquicel

Alquicel: Es una palabra que viene del árabe y se refiere a un tipo de vestidura a modo de capa, que normalmente era blanca y de lana.

Si quieres conocer qué otras palabras son de origen árabe, utiliza el diccionario e investiga: ¿Son de origen árabe estas palabras: “alcohol”, “almohada”, “aleta”, “alcázar”, “alcaldía”, “alhelí” y “altura”?

Lead

A grey metal which is very heavy.

Example: That shield is made of lead to protect the doctor against radiation.

Harvest

The gathering of ripe crops or plants grown on a farm.

Example: Summer is the time of year when the farmers harvest their wheat.

Rebecca at the well

A story from the Bible which narrates how a woman called Rebecca was chosen to be Isaac’s wife by his father’s servant because she was by a particular well and said and did what he was expecting, which he interpreted to be a sign of God.

Daoiz and Velarde

Two Spanish captains who raised against French Napoleonic occupation and rule, and fought in a famous and decisive battle which took place in Madrid on May 2nd 1808.

By heart

Using the memory.

Example: The child learnt the song by heart for the festival.

Alcubilla

A famous Spanish legal dictionary written by lawyer Marcelo Martínez Alcubilla in the 19th century.

Divine Comedy

A long narrative poem by 14th century Italian author Dante Alighieri. It is considered to be one of the greatest works of world literature.

As you can imagine, this is not the best way to address someone you love. If you were the shepherd, what would you say to your wife to confort her?

Birdlime is forbidden in many places. Can you imagine why?

Write it down and share it with your partners. Comment on the potential effect of what you all have written.

This word is the female form of "shepherd". As you can see, it is the same word but with the sufix "-ess". You can find other examples of this use in words like "countess" and "heiress".

Also, there are other more common ways to refer to professionals who are women. For example, what do you call a woman who is a doctor?

A she-doctor

Doctoress

A female doctor

 

 

ANSWER:

La ciudad en la biblioteca, en la ciudad en la biblioteca

Los escritores utilizan muchos trucos para hacer sus historias interesantes. En este caso, la autora hace que los juguetes y los espacios de juego que construyen los niños cobren vida y se hagan reales dentro de la historia. ¿Conoces otros cuentos en los que ocurra hacen algo parecido?

Aquí tienes un ejemplo muy famoso:

El soldadito de plomo

Ran out of

To use up the entire amount of something.

Example: It was such a hot day that we ran out of drinks.

Rivadeneyra

Manuel Rivadeneyra (1805-1872) fue un editor e impresor español que desde 1846 trató de reunir las obras clásicas de la literatura española en una colección que se llamó la Biblioteca de Autores Españoles.

El ratón mecánico

Otro truco para hacer una buena historia es jugar con los narradores y el origen del cuento. Nuestro narrador ha escuchado la historia que acabamos de leer de uno de los personajes del cuento. ¿No es un poco raro? ¿Te fiarías tú de lo que cuente un ratón mecánico?

Inventa una historia con un narrador poco fiable ¡pero divertido!

The children of the story tried to compensate their robbery by leaving 2.50 British pounds, which is 2.81 euros approximately. Do you think that amount is enough to pay for all the food they took? Maybe it was in those days?

What would you do if you were in their position? How would you try and compensate for having committed a robbery?

skating

Make a list of places related to the different types of weather mentioned in this paragraph. For example, you can relate Egypt with the sun and England with the rain. Think of other examples from other continents too.

Working in groups, imagine you saw flying children in the sky. Think how you would react (Would you like to see it? Would you burst out crying? Would you tell anybody? Would you call the police?...). When you share your thoughts with your group, remember to use conditional structures to describe your hypothetical feelings and reactions.


What a messy situation! It looks like a bloody battle is about to start in the middle of Rosie and Fabian’s library! Luckily, the monkey and the mouse are sensible and have an idea to put a stop to all this nonsense.

How would the monkey or the mouse persuade them not to fight? Elaborate a small speech of reconciliation as one of them. First, write it down and then rehearse it orally.


All throughout this story there are two scenarios: a real one in Rosie and Fabian’s library and an imaginary one in a medieval city which is about to become a battlefield… which is inside the library! Where are the children right now: still in the battlefield or back in the library?

Cloak

A long, loose, outer garment without sleeves that is used as a coat, to protect the wearer from the cold.

Example: The wizard had a purple cloak with stars on it.

Moors

North African Muslims.

Example: In the Middle Ages the Moors introduced many new scientific techniques to Spain and the rest of Europe.

Wheeled Board

A plank with wheels underneath. It can be a skateboard, which is a flat, short, narrow board that has four wheels on the bottom and is used for practising a sport.

Example: It is more fun to stand on your skateboard than to sit on it.

Rivadeneyra

A famous Spanish editor who lived in the 19th century, who published many Spanish works and collections with high quality.

Having wings to fly must be a wonderful experience, how do you think the children of the story felt when they were able to fly?

From the adjectives proposed below, which one do you think that doesn't fit to describe their feelings? You can discuss it with your group and check the dictionary in case you're not sure.

a) Amazed

b) Astonished

c) Disappointed

d) Thrilled

ANSWER:

The children were tired and fell asleep. When they woke up their wings had disappeared. Do you know why?

ANSWER:


This is the end of the story. Rosie and Fabian are sick in bed. In their feverish sleep, they have a nightmare about being judged in court for having been disobedient and reckless. Distribute the roles at court among the members of your group:

Try to follow the main norms in a real court situation (respect to the magistrates’ indications, turn taking, etc.) and come out with a sentence.

Don’t forget to finish the role play by waking Rosie and Fabian up at the end!

Genie

A spirit with magical powers.

Example: When Aladdin rubbed the lamp, a genie appeared.

Siblings

Brothers and/or sisters.

Example: We are a big family; I have five siblings: 2 brothers and 3 sisters.

Dusk

The time between sunset and total darkness.

Example: Street lamps usually turn on at dusk, when it starts to become dark.

Swelled (swell)

To become bigger or rounder.

Example: When you blow air into a balloon, it swells.

Youngsters

A young person.

Example: The movie is appropriate for youngsters between the ages of 12 and 16.

Arose (arise)

To happen.

Example: Should the opportunity arise, we would love to go to Australia on a family trip.

Iridescent

Showing bright colours that become different as the angle of vision changes; sparkling.

Example: When you look at a soap bubble in the right light, it becomes iridescent and you can see all kinds of colours.

Distrustfully

Feeling or showing doubt or lack of belief.

Example: The teacher looked at us distrustfully when we told her that we had finished the test in only 5 minutes.

Beating his wings (beat wings)

To move the wings up and down when flying.

Example: Dragonflies beat their wings many times in a second.

Confident

Feeling sure about one's abilities or qualities; believing in oneself.

Example: When I study a lot, I feel more confident before an exam.

Promenades

A broad space where cars are not allowed, and where people can walk and relax.

Example: In the evening my mom and I usually go for a walk along the promenade.

Orchard

An area where fruit and nut trees (and shrubs or bushes) are intentionally grown.

Example: There is a cherry orchard behind their country house.

Couldn't take it any longer (can't take it any longer)

An expression to say that you cannot tolerate something anymore.

Example: That music is too loud, I cannot take it any longer! I need quiet to study.

Land

To come down a surface.

Example: We were all happy when our plane landed on time; we were ready to visit the new country!

Prevailed (prevail)

To win; to succeed.

Example: The nurse didn't know whether to take a break or stay by the patient's side. In the end, her sense of duty prevailed.

Owner

A proprietor; the person who has or possesses something.

Example: The king and queen are the owners of the castle.

Stick

A long piece of wood used as support when walking; a cane.

Example: We usually carry sticks when we go hiking..

Owner

A proprietor; the person who has or possesses something.

Example: The king and queen are the owners of the castle.

Good gracious!

An exclamation of surprise.

Example: Good gracious, look at the time! It's already time for bed.

Pence

Plural of the word “penny”. The penny is the British unit of currency (money) which is 1/100 of a pound.

Example: There are 100 pence in a pound.

Inn

A small hotel in the countryside.

Example: We stayed at a nice little inn when we were on holiday in the countryside.

Barking (bark)

The loud sound that a dog makes.

Example: The dog barked when the burglar tried to get into the house.

In despair

As if a person had lost all hope.

Example: The prince cried in despair when he thought that the princess was dead. Luckily, she had only fainted.

Bolt (a door)

To secure a door by sliding the bolt (the metal rod/stick) into the lock.

Example: It is a good idea to bolt the doors at night.

Gathered (gather)

To come together in a group.

Example: The children gathered around the teacher to see what she was doing.

Firmly

In a strong, forceful way.

Example: The teacher firmly told the students that if they cheated on the test, they would get a 0/10.

Pantry

A small room or a cupboard where you keep food.

Example: Could you please get some more biscuits from the pantry?

As a matter of necessity rather than choice

Because it was necessary and not just a caprice.

Example: I bought a new car as a matter of necessity rather than choice.

Enclose

To put something (such as money) into an envelope or package together with something else (such as a letter).

Example: I have enclosed a copy of your contract with this letter.

Whistle

To make a musical tune by blowing air between your lips.

Example: The shepherd whistled to his dogs and they came right away.

Voracious

With a huge appetite.

Example: The voracious bear ate lots of salmon.

Amongst

Included in; as part of.

Example: Amongst the flowers, there were roses, lilies, sunflowers, etc.

Siphon

A type of bottle for carbonating water, which puts pressure on the water so that it comes out through the top.

Example: The soda siphon is typically used for storing and dispensing carbonated water.

Quilt

A duvet, a thick cover for a bed.

Example: My grandmother made me a beautiful quilt to put on my bed.

Nightfall

The time after sunset, when the sky is dark and night starts.

Example: I want to go home before nightfall to get a good night's sleep.

Popped her head out (pop your head out)

To stick out your head from an opening.

Example: Doggies like to pop their head out when they travel by car.

Verger

A person who looks after the church building.

Example: The cathedral has two vergers who help before and after worship services.

Shotgun

A long gun that fires not one bullet but lots of little round metal balls; mainly used for shooting birds.

Example: The hunter fired his shotgun and shot a duck.

Cocked (cock a gun)

To load a gun or fire arm so that it can be fired.

Example: The cowboy cocked his gun and fired it into the air to catch the cattle's attention.

Housekeeper

The person who is hired to do the house chores (tasks).

Example: This morning we picked up all our toys and put them in the toy-box so the housekeeper could clean the floors.

Hitch (something to something else)

To hook or tie something to another thing.

Example: She jumped off the horse and then hitched it to a post.

Carriage

A wheeled vehicle that was used before cars existed for human transportation, pulled by one or more horses.

Example: Cinderella went to the ball in a carriage.

Forbade (forbid)

To prohibit.

Example: Smoking is forbidden in schools and hospitals.

Lark

A type of bird famous for its beautiful song.

Came round (come round)

To recover consciousness by waking up.

Example: The lady fainted and then came round when her friend put strong perfume under her nose.

Drain

A pipe that usually carries liquids away.

Example: A summer storm filled the drains with rainwater.

Lifting (lift)

Pick up.

Example: The box was very heavy and they could not lift it.

Lid

Top, cover.

Example: She filled the jar with honey and closed the lid.

Hole

A round opening, an empty space.

Example: There's a hole in my pocket, and all my money fell out.

Kept your nose out of
(keep your nose out of)

A place (in the ground or in a church) where people are buried when they are dead.

An expression, not to interfere in someone else's matters.

Not to get involved in something that is not yours; to tell someone to respect our privacy.

Example: Keep your nose out of my diary! It's private.

Concern

To involve, to have to do with something or someone.

Example: What I write in my diary does not concern you!

Pleased

Happy, content.

Example: He was pleased with his grades this term.


Nowadays, we are used to seeing aerial views of the Earth but this was not the case at the beginning of the 20th century, when the story takes place.

The older aerial photograph preserved was taken on October 31, 1860, and is called "Boston, as the Eagle and the Wild Goose See It".

Later on, photographs from the air were used with military purposes during World War I. Soon after the end of the war, the commercial use of aerial photography began in the United States.

Since then, technology has advanced and we can see the aerial view of any point on Earth thanks to the satellites we have orbiting our planet, which send us photo and other information all the time.

Anther feels bad after seeing the owner pursuing them. Can you imagine why?

ANSWER:


Imagine this same situation happened today. In which places do you think the children would stop by to buy food? Maybe they would stop in a pizzeria? Also, imagine how people would react at the sight of four winged kids. Do you think they would call the police or try to defend themselves?

Now, rewrite this part of story as if it were the 21st century, just like you have imagined.


Listen to the following audio:

Have you ever noticed that you use different intonation patterns (your voice goes up and down) when you speak according to what you say and your intention while saying it?

Please undertake the following three steps:


Doing exercise is a good way to keep yourself healthy, but exercise burns a lot of your body's energy and you need to eat and drink in order to recover it.

What do you think is the most sensible thing you can eat and drink after having done intensive exercise? Is that what you would do?


Imagine these children were living in today's world. How do you think they would be able to escape? Write down your guesses.