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DIDACTIC TABLE OF ‘THE SNAKE’S ROCK’

PLOT
This is a fantastic story which begins when a shepherd sees a group of snakes going inside a rock by using magic. The shepherd follows the snakes into a cave where he is trapped. When he wakes up after a long sleep, the shepherd is allowed to escape after swearing that he will not reveal anything of what he has seen. When he arrives home, his wife is with a fierce wizard who forces the shepherd to tell him about the secret place where he has been. The chief snake tries to protect the secret cave by turning into a dragon and taking the shepherd away. In the end, the shepherd realizes that it had all been a dream.

DIDACTIC POTENTIAL (AT LANGUAGE LEVEL)
This story is highly descriptive. Apart from working on reading and listening comprehension, this tale can be used to revise word order, prepositions, expressions related to feelings, verbal tenses, etc. All the vocabulary included can be used to improve oral production if the students are encouraged to share their answers to the different activities available next to the story.

DIDACTIC POTENTIAL (OTHER COMPETENCES)
This story has aspects of different literary genres and subgenres. Firstly, it is fantastic, with magic situations and imaginary monsters. Secondly, it belongs to the pastoral genre (it is located in the countryside, there are animals, and the protagonist is a shepherd), so it can be studied from that perspective. Thirdly, it uses a well known narrative strategy consisting of telling a story which turns out to be the main character’s dream. This could help to awake the students’ imagination and to explore shaping alternative worlds that escape real life logic to some extent.

LIMITATIONS & POTENTIAL DIFFICULTIES
Some students could feel overwhelmed with an unusual amount of new words and expressions found in the text. The pages with more unknown words will need more time to work on than the rest. However, the definition of a considerable amount of words is accessible by means of hyperlinks.

PROPOSALS FOR WORKING WITH THE STORY IN CLASSROOM & AT HOME
Although the majority of the activities proposed have been designed to be undertaken in the classroom or in a group, they can be easily adapted to be done at home and in isolation.

PROPOSALS FOR WORKING WITH THE STORY IN CLASSROOM & AT HOME
The potential of this story lies in the integration of a considerable number of narrative, communicative and cultural elements, among others. It could prove useful to work progressively, either individually or collaboratively, on the elaboration of a schematic map that reflects the complex structure of the story.

SUGGESTIONS FOR BRAINSTORMING OR PRE-TASKS
There are several topics that could be reflected upon / discussed before reading this story: -Dreams. Do you ever remember your dreams? Can you remember any dream you’ve had recently? - Animals and their symbolism. Which ethical associations would you make involving animals (e.g., dogs and loyalty)? Are they all justified? - Magic. What are the most common uses of magic that you find in books? Do they have anything in common?

SUGGESTIONS FOR WORKING ON RELATED FIELDS & STORIES
This story is a magnificent resource to work on literary genres, text-types and techniques. There is a fluid integration of narration, description and dialogue. Furthermore, there are many fantastic elements (with a connection to ‘Ali Baba and the forty Thieves’) and the story is dreamt by the main character (a well known literary device found in books like ‘Alice in Wonderland’). The narrative potential of fantasy and dreams can be explored and contrasted with realistic texts. It is worth mentioning that, unlike the pastoral genre which contains elements of idealism, such as platonic love, neither the characters nor their relationships are idealized. Quite the contrary! This is an opportunity to explore (lack of) politeness in conversation and humour and irony as literary resources.

TABLA DIDÁCTICA DEL CUENTO
"LA ROCA DE LAS SERPIENTES

RESUMEN
Un pastor encuentra el refugio de unas serpientes mágicas. Sin embargo, presionado por el mago de la montaña, el pastor incumple su palabra de no revelar su escondite y se ve presa de un grave peligro, del que acaba salvándose por intercesión de una fuerza maravillosa.

POTENCIAL DIDÁCTICO
Este cuento es el único de la Colección que parece originariamente español y, a diferencia de los demás, fue ilustrado por Penagos. Por ello, puede estudiarse la figura de este ilustrador y su obra desde una perspectiva histórica y artística. Desde el punto de vista literario, el cuento alberga rasgos típicos de la tradición oral y confluencias con otros cuentos reconocidos. Así, puede servir para el estudio de los elementos comunes a la tradición fantástica, como la simbología mágica del número tres o las historias en las que aparecen cuevas maravillosas. Por otro lado, también sería útil para tratar el concepto del “Deus ex machina”. Como añadido, pueden abordarse temas relacionados con la biología y con la ecología, dado que se tratan conceptos como el de la atmósfera y los gases que se encuentran en ella.

PROPUESTA DE ACTIVIDADES
Actividades de lectura crítica orientadas al trazo de relaciones intertextuales entre el cuento y la tradición oral y la literatura fantástica. Una actividad interactiva sobre la atmósfera. Actividades de escritura creativa y de dibujo. Una actividad interactiva sobre laísmo, leísmo y loísmo.

VOCABULARIO
Definición de las siguientes expresiones, palabras o grafías: reflector, alondra, abedul.

Text, intertextuality and context: Activity to scaffold reading comprehension and notes on intertextual and historical or cultural contextual information.
Oral interpersonal communication: Activity to improve oral production and interaction.
Collaboration: Activity to be undertaken totally or partially in a group.
Critical capacity: Activity to promote explicit learning through analysis and critical reasoning.
Oral comprehension: Activity for the acquisition of oral receptive skills.
Gamification and digital skills: Activity to promote gamified and technology-based learning through exercises and small interactive games with the computer.
Oral interpersonal communication: Activity to improve oral production and interaction.
Didactic guidelines for the English teacher: Table with a summary of the story and recommendations for the use of the tool in the classroom.
Audio: Listening of the enriched audio embedded in each page.
Comprensión lectora y contexto Explicación de información contextual, histórica o cultural, difícil para el lector actual.

Creatividad Propuestas para trabajar la imaginación, la fantasía y la sensibilidad a partir de la lectura.

Trabajo colaborativo y emocional Propuestas de actividades para desarrollar el trabajo en grupo y el conocimiento de las emociones.

Capacidad crítica e intertextualidad Anotaciones que promueven el pensamiento crítico y la profundización en el conocimiento de las estrategias literarias.

Actividades auditivas Anotaciones orientadas a desarrollar la recepción auditiva, utilizando la dimensión oral del lenguaje, los sonidos y la música.

Elementos interactivos (Puzles, galerías de imágenes, ejercicios, etc.) Anotaciones que han requerido algún tipo de programación especial orientadas a fomentar la lectura activa.

Audio Pista de audio del cuento por página.

What’s the name given to the process of sleeping through the winter in the animal kingdom? Why do some animals do that? How do they manage to survive? Do they wake up to eat and drink?

Talk to others about this and look for the answers to these questions if necessary.

Do you think that humans and snakes hibernate?

ANSWER:

Una ciudad de libros

Comprensión lectora y contexto Explicación de información contextual, histórica o cultural, difícil para el lector actual.
Creatividad Propuestas para trabajar la creatividad a partir de la lectura.
Trabajo colaborativo y emocional Propuestas de actividades para desarrollar el trabajo en grupo y el conocimiento de las emociones.
Capacidad crítica e intertextualidad Anotaciones que promueven el pensamiento crítico y la profundización en el conocimiento de las estrategias literarias
Comprensión sonora Ejercicios que trabajan la comprensión auditiva (para la versión en inglés).
Elementos interactivos (Puzles, galerías de imágenes, ejercicios, etc.) Anotaciones que han requerido algún tipo de programación especial
Icono audio Se utiliza este icono para escuchar el audio incrustado por página en la versión en inglés y en la bilingüe.

"La roca de las serpientes"

La mayoría de los cuentos de esta colección son adaptaciones de obras de Edith Nesbit procedentes de The Book of Dragons, Nine Unlikely Tales y Five Children and It. Sin embargo, este relato no pertenece a ninguna de esas colecciones. Eso y el cambio de ilustrador (Rafael de Penagos) hacen este cuento único en la colección. El cuento tiene muchas semejanzas con otros cuentos de la tradición oral, con elementos como el número tres o el juramento, y se aleja de los cuentos de autor, con un estilo más particular. Sin embargo, comparte con varios de los cuentos de Nesbit un personaje importante. ¡A ver si lo encuentras!

Fotografía de Rafael de Penagos, aparecida en la revista Por esos mundos, n.8, 2015, Madrid. (Archivo BNE)./p>


The English version of this book is a translation from Plaga de Dragones, a story collection which was published by Saturnino Calleja in 1923. This translation was undertaken collaboratively as part of a crowd translation project which took place at the Spanish distance learning university UNED in 2016, involving translation teachers and students. During the translation process, we tried to reach a balance between being faithful to the Spanish text and bringing it into the 21st century for the enjoyment and learning of modern readers. We feel that the stories are still relevant to you these days and trust that you will find the cultural contrast interesting.

The text has been enriched with a number of annotations including audio, term explanations, and various proposals for activities, which are mainly aimed at young non-native English speakers.

Ilustradores

A diferencia del resto de cuentos de esta colección (todos ellos ilustrados por Federico Rivas), el de "La roca de las serpientes" fue ilustrado por Rafael de Penagos, uno de los ilustradores más importantes de la Edad de Plata de la Literatura Española. Fue colaborador, entre otras publicaciones, de Blanco y Negro y creador en España de algunos de los iconos de los años 20. Se hizo famosa, por ejemplo, “la mujer Penagos”, una mujer valiente y moderna que aparecía en muchos de sus carteles e ilustraciones.

Measles

A contagious illness that causes red spots on the skin and high temperature. Children have it more frequently than adults unless they are vaccinated.

Example: Tommy didn’t go to school when he had measles.

Bean

The seed of certain plants which are eaten as a vegetable in stews, soups, salads, or as a side dish.

Example: The smell of the bean stew was delicious.

Nanny

A person who provides care for somebody else’s children as a paid service.

Example: The nanny told the children a story at bedtime.

Three Wise Men

According to the Christian tradition, the Three Wise Men, Kings or Magi were distinguished foreigners who visited Jesus after his birth, guided by a star, bearing gifts. They are common figures in Christmas nativity sets, next to the Holy Family and the shepherds.

Example: The names of the Three Wise Men were Melchior, Gaspar and Balthassar.

Bureau

A chest or piece of furniture for writing with drawers (boxes that slide in and out and are used to hold things). It can have a top that locks with a key and opens upwards.

Example: The old wooden bureau contained old secret documents.

Flock

A group of sheep, goats, or birds.

Example: Shepherds take care of their flock.

Benny_Trapp_Anatololacerta_oertzeni_Rhodos.jpg


Why do you think that Rosie and Fabian’s mother doesn’t let them open the two drawers? Try and guess the reason!


We are sure that you know what a bureau is and what it is for. Can you name up to five things that you would typically find in the drawers of a bureau and five things that you would never ever find there?


The snake has been used as a symbol throughout history. For example, snakes create waves while moving and for this reason they have been a symbolic representation of energy in many cultures.

There are different kinds of snakes and each of them is symbolically used depending on where they live. For example, in India, snakes are related to the waters of the sea and are guardians of the springs of life. In Egypt, they are related to the dangers of the desert and symbolize the forces of destruction.


We are sure that you know what a bureau is and what it is for. Can you name up to five things that you would typically find in the drawers of a bureau and five things that you would never ever find there?


We are sure that you know what a bureau is and what it is for. Can you name up to five things that you would typically find in the drawers of a bureau and five things that you would never ever find there?

Is the word "sheep" here singular or plural? Can you think of any other similar words? Do you know how many different value coins and notes are used nowadays in Spain and the eurozone?

ANSWER:

Shepherds use herding dogs to help them with their work. Dogs help shepherds to control the flock, find lost animals and keep predators away.

Do you know what dog breeds are commonly used for herding?

ANSWER:

LISTEN

Listen to this recording of another story and answer the questions below:

Which story does this fragment belong to? Do you know what's happening in the story you just listened to?

ANSWER:

Now that yoy have read the whole story of the Shepherd and the snakes, read this brief comic strip of "Little Nemo" by Winsor McCay (1869-1934)

Do you think there are similarities between the stories? Working with a partner, write down as much coincidences as you find.

What do you think the shepherd thought and did when he saw his dog again? What do you think the dog did?

Collect and share information about snakes. First, try to make an effort and focus on what you already know. Try to remember what they eat, how they reproduce, etc. Then, you can look for more data in your Natural Science' books or the Internet if you need to.

Afterwards, try to organize the information you have found out about their life (what they eat, how they reproduce, etc.) and summarize it in a paragraph or in a few PowerPoint slides.

LISTEN

Listen again to the words of the wizard:

Do you think he is angry?

What expressions would you use in a similar situation in order not to sound so aggressive?

This old snake seems to be the king of the other snakes. Many kings in fantastic stories must have done great achievements to be worthy of their position. Can you imagine what this old snake has down to deserve the throne?

Write the story of the old snake's past. Include the place and circumstances of its birth, which obstacles and enemies it encountered and defeated, and its path to the throne.

Let's be careful with our prejudices. The snake in your story does not have to be wicked if you don't want to!

Las serpientes

Parece que las serpientes tenían algún truco para entrar a la cueva, ¿recuerdas algún otro cuento en el que un grupo de personas entre en un lugar escondido gracias a una contraseña? ¿Conoces la historia de Alí Babá y los cuarenta ladrones?

Ilustración de Albert Robida (1848–1926).

Alondra

La alondra es un pájaro de color castaño que construye sus nidos en los campos, se alimenta de insectos (por lo que es bueno para las cosechas) y canta mientras vuela. Además, alcanza una gran altura en sus vuelos. Desde la Antigüedad ha sido un símbolo de felicidad y buenos augurios para muchas culturas.

Abedul

Los abedules son árboles que se encuentran en Europa, América y Asia, sobretodo en climas fríos. Viven más de cien años, son muy altos y su tronco, con corteza blanquecina, es muy fácil de identificar. Para un gran número de culturas, desde Siberia hasta La India, este árbol se considera un ahuyentador de las influencias malignas y de las desgracias. En Italia y en España se plantaban abedules en la entrada de los establos para ahuyentar a los demonios y fantasmas. También se utilizaban sus ramas o sus hojas como amuleto en las cunas de los niños. En la antigua Roma el abedul era un símbolo de autoridad y poder.

Ilustración botánica del abedul o betula pendula, Alemania, 1885.

Laísmo

En la frase “la llamó y la dijo” hay algo que no es correcto gramaticalmente. En muchas regiones españolas, como en la zona centro y en el norte se utiliza, aunque no se considera una forma culta de hablar. ¿Cuál sería la forma correcta?

La llamó y le dijo.

Le llamó y le dijo.

Le llamó y la dijo.

 

 

Ver restuesta Mostrar / Ocultar

En la frase: «Di un regalo a Juan» (“un regalo” es el objeto directo de la frase y “a Juan” el objeto indirecto). Los pronombres “lo”, “la”, “los”, “las” se utilizan para el objeto directo, y “le”, “les” para el indirecto. El laísmo es un tipo de error en el uso del español en el que se utilizan los pronombres personales de objeto directo femenino "la" y "las" como objeto indirecto cuando la palabra a la que se refieren es femenina, en lugar de las formas "le" y "les", que serían las correctas.

El juramento y el número tres

¿Te has dado cuenta de cuántas veces aparece el número tres en los cuentos? Tres hermanos o hermanas, tres veces... ¡No es casualidad! Los números tienen significados y simbologías, especialmente los números tres y siete, que tanto aparecen en los cuentos. El tres suele significar aprendizaje, porque se tarda tres intentos en aprender las cosas (ya sabes, "a la tercera va la vencida"), por eso siempre son los hermanos pequeños los que resuelven las situaciones.

Además, en los cuentos tradicionales, muchas veces aparecen los juramentos que los protagonistas hacen de manera inconsciente pero que, luego, tienen graves repercusiones. ¿Te acuerdas de algún otro cuento donde haya un juramento? ¿Te acuerdas de "El enano saltarín (Rumpelstiltskin)" en el que la hija del molinero promete al enano que le dará su primer hijo? También hay otros, como "La doncella manca", ¿por qué no lo buscas y lo lees si no lo conoces ya?

Ilustración del siglo XIX por Philipp Grot Johann (Wikimedia commons, “The Girl Without Hands”).

Reflectores

Un reflector es un aparato que dirige la luz de un foco en determinada dirección. Los ojos del dragón parecían proyectar un haz de luz que llegaba lejísimos.

Obscuridad

La grafía «obscuridad» se utilizaba antiguamente para escribir «oscuridad». Otras palabras, como «substancia» se simplifican hoy día también, siendo más común verlo como «sustancia», ya que suele pronunciarse así.

Cuevas mágicas

En más de una historia aparece una cueva en la que el personaje entra y, al salir, el tiempo ha pasado muy rápido o el espacio ha cambiado. ¿Recuerdas alguna? ¿Sabías que en El Quijote la cueva de Montesinos tiene poderes semejantes?

¿Por qué no te inventas la historia de otra cueva en la que ocurran cosas maravillosas con el espacio y el tiempo?

Miguel de Cervantes (1879) Antonio de Bofarull y Brocá, ed. El ingenioso hidalgo D. Quijote de la Mancha, Barcelona: Juan Aleu y Fugarull, editor-impresor. (Wikimedia Commons).

El dragón

Este es el personaje que también aparece en otras historias de esta colección, como “Plaga de dragones”, “El grumete y la isla encantada” o “La compostura del dragón”, aunque, a diferencia de este, en otros cuentos nos parece hasta simpático. Puedes descargarte el dibujo de Penagos aquí para colorearlo.

La caza con liga

En el cuento, el Concejo decide colocar altas columnas «con liga» para controlar la plaga de dragones. Este método se refiere a la caza con liga que, antiguamente, consistía en extender una masa pegajosa de distintos materiales (cardo, frutos de muérdago…) sobre la rama de un árbol para capturar al pájaro que se posara sobre ella. En la actualidad, es un método de caza prohibido por las leyes.

Dragones y princesas

Para controlar la plaga de dragones, el Ayuntamiento quería ofrecer una princesa como recompensa a aquellos que se enfrentaran a las criaturas. ¿Qué piensas sobre eso? Seguro que, a estas alturas, te has percatado de que, en muchísimos cuentos, hay dragones y princesas. ¿Cómo son esas princesas? Compáralas con la protagonista de este cuento y discute con tus compañeros las diferencias. Podéis fijaros, por ejemplo, en historias como la de La Bella Durmiente o como la de Shrek.

Dibujo de la bella durmiente y el príncipe en el cuento de los hermanos Grimm, 1812.

Magos con tres ojos en la cara

¿Alguna vez habías escuchado que los magos tienen tres ojos en la cara? ¿Algún otro mago que conozcas tiene tres ojos? ¿Merlín? ¿Harry Potter? ¿Cómo te imaginas a este mago tan terrible? ¿Por qué no lo dibujas?

Guardapolvo

El guardapolvo es una prenda que se coloca sobre la ropa para protegerla de la suciedad. Una bata de científico, por ejemplo, podría considerarse un guardapolvo. También lo son algunas piezas de los uniformes escolares, como los babis, que suelen utilizarse en preescolar.

Una muchacha inteligente

¿Qué piensa en secreto Enrique de su hermana y qué le dice en voz alta? ¿Por qué crees que no es sincero?¿Alguna vez Eufemia le dice a Enrique algo parecido?

Iglesia de San Jorge

Esta frase nos dio otra pista para situar el origen de los cuentos en Inglaterra, pues en España no es habitual que en una ciudad haya muchas iglesias de San Jorge. En Madrid, solo hay una en la calle de Núñez de Balboa, que además es anglicana, mientras que en Londres encontrar la iglesia donde estuviera el santo era un verdadero dilema, ¡pues hay quince! (Hay que apuntar que San Jorge es un santo especialmente admirado en Inglaterra, siendo el patrono de la monarquía inglesa desde el siglo XIV).

Divisa

Aquí, San Jorge se refiere a una expresión o frase que refleja su pensamiento, sus ideales personales. Para él, un hombre solo puede acabar con un dragón, no con varios. Así, su lema sirve como disculpa, ya que es incapaz de acabar con todos los dragones sin ayuda de nadie más.

Espitas

La espita es un dispositivo que, como un grifo, permite regular la salida de líquidos de un recipiente. Antiguamente, se utilizaba en los barriles de madera o en las vasijas de barro, por ejemplo. En el cuarto de baño «mágico» del cuento su apertura o cierre regula el clima del país de los niños protagonistas. Nos parece interesante que en el cuento aparezca una especie de cuarto de baño en una cueva. Los cuartos de baño tal y como los conocemos ahora eran una gran novedad cuando Edith Nesbit compuso esta historia en 1899. El primer váter moderno lo inventó Thomas William Twyford, un fabricante de cerámica, en 1885. Durante esa época se perfeccionó el sistema de tuberías y alcantarillado de las ciudades y las casas empezaron a tener una habitación especialmente dedicada al aseo.

Morir de asfixia

¡Imagínate lo alto que ha subido el pastor! ¿Por qué cree que va a morir de asfixia?

Respuesta

Deus ex machina

Finalmente, aparece Dios para salvar al pastor, ¿qué te parece este final? ¿Es el que esperabas? En realidad, lo de hacer aparecer a un Dios (u otro elemento externo a la trama y, generalmente, mágico) para que, de pronto, resuelva la situación, aunque no tenga mucho que ver con el resto de la historia, es un recurso que ya usaban los griegos en sus tragedias y que se llama "Deus ex machina". Sin embargo, no es una forma de resolver la trama muy recomendable, pues no guarda coherencia con el resto del argumento. ¿Se te ocurre una forma mejor de acabar este cuento? Escríbela.


Sueños...

Al final, todo había sido un sueño. ¿Conoces otras historias en las que todo se resuelva al despertar y no haya ocurrido de verdad? ¿Has leído Alicia en el país de las maravillas?

Ilustración de sir John Tenniel (1820-1914), para la novela original de Alicia en el País de las Maravillas (1865), de Lewis Carroll.

Concejo

Los pueblos y ciudades no solo son gobernados por un alcalde o alcaldesa, sino que, en el Ayuntamiento, también trabajan otras personas, que son las que forman el Concejo. A estos empleados se les conoce como «concejales», y se especializan en diversas áreas de gobierno, por lo que existen concejales de cultura, de educación, de sanidad, de medio ambiente y muchos más.

El final del cuento

¿Te parece justo para Eufemia y Enrique el final del cuento? Piensa sobre por qué los adultos no agradecen a los niños su hazaña e imagina un final diferente para el cuento. Puedes poner por escrito ese final aquí.

Juguetes

¿Cómo eran los juguetes de tus padres y abuelos? Pregúntales si tuvieron algunos de estos.

Issues

Something that is made, sent out, or published.

Example: The man sold all his old issues of comics from when he was a child.

This is such a tough decision for the shepherd! Help him by writing down in one column reasons for obeying the wizard and, in another column, reasons for keeping the oath he swore to the snake.

Have a debate with your group, consider the others' opinions and try to make a final decision together. It might be necessary to vote at the end.

Council

Imagine you and your partners are members of the city Council during the plague of dragons in the story. Each one of you must choose a role from the following list and start a discussion:

  1. Mayor: S/he wants to eliminate he plague but without harming anybody and without destroying any buildings or property.
  2. Militar advisor: S/he wants to eliminate the plague no matter what to ensure that the main objective is reached.
  3. Scientific advisor: S/he doesn't want to eliminate the plague in order study the dragons and protect the people at the same time.

Rosie and Fabian use a six-sided puzzle to make a castle. Each side contains a beautiful picture. Go to the webpage of a famous museum and select six paintings that you like, each one corresponding to the following famous painters:

  1. Leonardo da Vinci (Italian, 15th century)
  2. Peter Paul Rubens (German, 17th century)
  3. Rembrandt van Rijn (Dutch, 17th century)
  4. Vincent Van Gogh (Dutch, 19th century)
  5. Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 20th century)
  6. Salvador Dali (Spanish, 20th century)

Bayonet

A weapon that consists of a knife attached to the front end of a rifle.

Example: Bayonets were used in close fighting long ago.

Sabre

A heavy sword with one sharp curved edge.

Example: My grandfather has a sabre on the wall from the Mexican war.

Puzzle

Shepherds entertain themselves in many different ways. What do you think the shepherd in the story is doing in the picture below? Do you know who painted it?


ANSWER:

Fire poker

A pointed metal bar for stirring up a fire.

Example: Our father used the fire poker when the grill was about to extinguish.

Board

A plank; a flat, cut piece of wood.

Example: The child fixed small wheels to the board and then jumped on it.

Alquicel

Alquicel: Es una palabra que viene del árabe y se refiere a un tipo de vestidura a modo de capa, que normalmente era blanca y de lana.

Si quieres conocer qué otras palabras son de origen árabe, utiliza el diccionario e investiga: ¿Son de origen árabe estas palabras: “alcohol”, “almohada”, “aleta”, “alcázar”, “alcaldía”, “alhelí” y “altura”?

Lead

A grey metal which is very heavy.

Example: That shield is made of lead to protect the doctor against radiation.

Harvest

The gathering of ripe crops or plants grown on a farm.

Example: Summer is the time of year when the farmers harvest their wheat.

Rebecca at the well

A story from the Bible which narrates how a woman called Rebecca was chosen to be Isaac’s wife by his father’s servant because she was by a particular well and said and did what he was expecting, which he interpreted to be a sign of God.

Daoiz and Velarde

Two Spanish captains who raised against French Napoleonic occupation and rule, and fought in a famous and decisive battle which took place in Madrid on May 2nd 1808.

By heart

Using the memory.

Example: The child learnt the song by heart for the festival.

Alcubilla

A famous Spanish legal dictionary written by lawyer Marcelo Martínez Alcubilla in the 19th century.

Divine Comedy

A long narrative poem by 14th century Italian author Dante Alighieri. It is considered to be one of the greatest works of world literature.

Shepherds used to spend long hours alone in the middle of the countryside, so they knew many activities to enjoy their spare time, such as playing musical instruments or telling stories to other shepherds.

Nowadays, technology can help shepherds to avoid boredom. Write a list of five activities shepherds weren't able to do one century ago but they can do now.

As you can imagine, this is not the best way to address someone you love. If you were the shepherd, what would you say to your wife to confort her?

Write it down and share it with your partners. Comment on the potential effect of what you all have written.

This word is the female form of "shepherd". As you can see, it is the same word but with the sufix "-ess". You can find other examples of this use in words like "countess" and "heiress".

Also, there are other more common ways to refer to professionals who are women. For example, what do you call a woman who is a doctor?

A she-doctor

A female doctor

Doctoress

 

 

ANSWER:

La ciudad en la biblioteca, en la ciudad en la biblioteca

Los escritores utilizan muchos trucos para hacer sus historias interesantes. En este caso, la autora hace que los juguetes y los espacios de juego que construyen los niños cobren vida y se hagan reales dentro de la historia. ¿Conoces otros cuentos en los que ocurra hacen algo parecido?

Aquí tienes un ejemplo muy famoso:

El soldadito de plomo

Ran out of

To use up the entire amount of something.

Example: It was such a hot day that we ran out of drinks.

Rivadeneyra

Manuel Rivadeneyra (1805-1872) fue un editor e impresor español que desde 1846 trató de reunir las obras clásicas de la literatura española en una colección que se llamó la Biblioteca de Autores Españoles.

El ratón mecánico

Otro truco para hacer una buena historia es jugar con los narradores y el origen del cuento. Nuestro narrador ha escuchado la historia que acabamos de leer de uno de los personajes del cuento. ¿No es un poco raro? ¿Te fiarías tú de lo que cuente un ratón mecánico?

Inventa una historia con un narrador poco fiable ¡pero divertido!

The wizard is described as a fierce man, but in the book's illustration you can see that he doesn't seem to be too fierce. How do you imagine a man "terrible as a wild beast" and with "three eyes"?

Draw your own version of the fierce wizard of the story. You can add other elements like warts or long hair. Just follow the information in the story and your own imagination!

skating

Make a list of places related to the different types of weather mentioned in this paragraph. For example, you can relate Egypt with the sun and England with the rain. Think of other examples from other continents too.

Before entering the cave, the shepherd wasn't alone. Do you remember who was with him?

ANSWER:


What a messy situation! It looks like a bloody battle is about to start in the middle of Rosie and Fabian’s library! Luckily, the monkey and the mouse are sensible and have an idea to put a stop to all this nonsense.

How would the monkey or the mouse persuade them not to fight? Elaborate a small speech of reconciliation as one of them. First, write it down and then rehearse it orally.


All throughout this story there are two scenarios: a real one in Rosie and Fabian’s library and an imaginary one in a medieval city which is about to become a battlefield… which is inside the library! Where are the children right now: still in the battlefield or back in the library?

Cloak

A long, loose, outer garment without sleeves that is used as a coat, to protect the wearer from the cold.

Example: The wizard had a purple cloak with stars on it.

Moors

North African Muslims.

Example: In the Middle Ages the Moors introduced many new scientific techniques to Spain and the rest of Europe.

Wheeled Board

A plank with wheels underneath. It can be a skateboard, which is a flat, short, narrow board that has four wheels on the bottom and is used for practising a sport.

Example: It is more fun to stand on your skateboard than to sit on it.

Rivadeneyra

A famous Spanish editor who lived in the 19th century, who published many Spanish works and collections with high quality.

Many stories have doors that will be opened only after performing a spell o a specific task. Can you remember any other stories with a magical door?

ANSWER:

Why are "Him" and "He" written with a capital letter? Who does it refer to?

ANSWER:

What do you think has happened here? How can the shepherd have slept for several months?

ANSWER:


This is the end of the story. Rosie and Fabian are sick in bed. In their feverish sleep, they have a nightmare about being judged in court for having been disobedient and reckless. Distribute the roles at court among the members of your group:

Try to follow the main norms in a real court situation (respect to the magistrates’ indications, turn taking, etc.) and come out with a sentence.

Don’t forget to finish the role play by waking Rosie and Fabian up at the end!

Shepherd

A person who takes care of small domestic animals like sheep, goats, or geese.

Example: After the winter, the shepherd and his dog took the sheep out to the field.

Flock

A group of sheep, goats, or birds.

Example: Shepherds take care of their flock.

Gazing (gaze)

To look for a long time at something with interest.

Example: The little girl sat by the window and gazed at the rainbow.

Mountain peaks

The tops of the mountains.

Example: The mountain climbers finally reached the highest peak.

Witnessed (witness)

To see something happen.

Example: The man told the judge everything that he had witnessed.

Blade of grass

One single piece of grass.

Example: There was a drop of water hanging from a blade of grass.

Nearby

Close by, very close.

Example: I live nearby; it's only 2 minutes walking from here.

Entrance

A door used to enter into a room or building, or some other place.

Example: The police blocked the entrance so no one could go in.

Cloak

A long, loose garment or piece of clothing.

Example: The little girl was wearing a brown cloak with its hood up to keep warm.

Grumble

To complain by making sounds with the mouth.

Example: She always grumbles when she has to stand in a queue for too long.

Oath

A promise to God or somebody greatly respected.

Example: The soldier took an oath of loyal service to his country.

Woe unto you

An expression to warn somebody that something bad will happen if they do (or don't do) something.

Example: ‘Woe unto the ones who do evil!’, shouted the good fairy as she shook her wand.

Puzzled

Confused.

Example: The audience was impressed and puzzled by the magic trick.

Trembled (tremble)

To shake uncontrollably, typically of fear or cold.

Example: I trembled after the cold shower.

Hut

A sort of a tent used as temporary or seasonal shelter.

Example: Peter hid the money in an old hut behind the big trees.

Delay

Being late.

Example: Our flight to New York had a delay of two hours because of technical problems.

Torn (tear)

To separate parts using some force.

Example: I didn’t have scissors, so I had to tear the sheet of paper.

Shreds

Small, thin pieces that have been torn or cut from something.

Example: She didn't like her composition so she tore it to shreds and started again.

Meadow

A land covered with grass.

Example: Jane was amazed by the beautiful wildflowers in the meadow.

Sleepyhead

A person who is often tired or absent-minded.

Example: Wake up, sleepyhead! It’s almost 11 am!

Intervened (intervene)

To participate in a conversation or debate.

Example: Tommy intervened just on time to prevent a fight between the two brothers.

Get the truth out of
(someone)

To force somebody to tell the truth.

Example: The mother managed to get the truth out of her child about the broken vase.

Reward

Prize or benefit.

Example: Barbara was rewarded generously for returning the lost wallet to its owner.

Wizard

A magician, a person who practices magic.

Example: Merlin, the wizard, was king Arthur's advisor and tutor.

Making up

To invent or imagine.

Example: The nurse made up a nice story to entertain the sick child.

Revenge

Hurting somebody in return for something wrong they did to you.

Example: The boy took revenge by glueing the last pages of his sister’s favourite novel.

Fierce

Unfriendly or aggressive.

Example: The headmistress’ fierce look scared Billy, so he decided to tell the truth.

Wizard

A magician, a person who practices magic.

Example: Merlin, the wizard, was king Arthur's advisor and tutor.

Premonition

A vision or feeling of something that is going to happen in the future.

Example: I had a premonition of the end of the world. Luckily I was wrong.

Voracious

With a huge appetite.

Example: The voracious bear ate lots of salmon.

Snapped off (snap off)

Break, cut.

Example: He snapped off a piece of wood and added it to the fire.

Collar

A leather or plastic band that goes around the neck of an animal, often a dog.

Example: I always put a collar on my dog when I go for a walk in case it gets lost.

Strangle

To kill somebody by squeezing or pressing on their neck with your hands.

Example: Some snakes kill by strangling their prey.

Faded

To become less bright.

Example: The colours of the old photo faded with time.

Searchlights

A strong light that is used to find people or cars at night.

Bounced (bounce)

Jump up and down.

Example: The ball bounced several times before disappearing behind the bushes.

Clinging (cling)

To hold tightly.

Example: The baby monkey clinged to its mother’s neck.

Futile

Unsuccessful.

Example: Charles was so sad that all my efforts to cheer him up were futile.

Pleas (singular: plea)

Intense requests.

Example: Jeremy made a plea for mercy in front of the school master in order not to be punished.

Doomed (doom)

To be certain that something will not work.

Example: The boy scout didn’t make a good plan, so it was doomed to fail.

Birch

A kind of tree.

Beak

A bird’s mouth.

Example: The bird had a worm in its beak.

Lark

A type of bird famous for its beautiful song.

Came round (come round)

To recover consciousness by waking up.

Example: The lady fainted and then came round when her friend put strong perfume under her nose.

Drain

A pipe that usually carries liquids away.

Example: A summer storm filled the drains with rainwater.

Lifting (lift)

Pick up.

Example: The box was very heavy and they could not lift it.

Lid

Top, cover.

Example: She filled the jar with honey and closed the lid.

Hole

A round opening, an empty space.

Example: There's a hole in my pocket, and all my money fell out.

Kept your nose out of
(keep your nose out of)

A place (in the ground or in a church) where people are buried when they are dead.

An expression, not to interfere in someone else's matters.

Not to get involved in something that is not yours; to tell someone to respect our privacy.

Example: Keep your nose out of my diary! It's private.

Concern

To involve, to have to do with something or someone.

Example: What I write in my diary does not concern you!

Pleased

Happy, content.

Example: He was pleased with his grades this term.